Art Photography Terms

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Additive Process  – The additive process and the substractive process are the two forms to produce color
Aerial Photography  – Aerial Photography A specialized branch of photography concerned with making photographs from aircraft for a variety of uses
Albumen Print  – The albumen print, invented in 1850 by Louis Désiré Blanquart-Evrard, was the first method of producing a print on paper from a negative
Ambrotype  – The ambrotype process from Greek ambrotos, "immortal" is a photographic process invented in the mid-1850´s by Frederick Scott Archer
Aperture  – In optics, an aperture is a hole or an opening through which light is admitted. In photography, aperture refers to the diameter of the aperture stop rather than the physical stop or the opening itself
Archival Quality  – Paper or inks of high permanence and durability. A non-technical term used to denote material that will last over long periods (several hundred years) with minimal deterioration because of its chemical stability and physical durability
ASA  – ASA refers to the American Standards Association, which designates one of the systems of calibration of the sensitivity of film
Autochrome  – Refers to the Autochrome Lumière color photography process. Patented in 1903 by the Lumière brothers in France
Box Camera  – An inexpensive, nearly cubical, roll-film camera, usually with limited or no adjustments in focus, shutter speed and aperture size
Bromoil Print  – The Bromoil Process was an early photographic process that was very popular with the Pictorialists during the first half of the twentieth century
C-print  – A term originally used by Kodak in the 1950s to designate an early type of color-coupled printing paper. Now used to describe a print in which colored dyes are coupled with light-silver compounds
Calotype  – The calotype was an early photographic process introduced in 1841, using paper sheets covered with silver chloride
Camera Obscura  – The camera obscura, Latin for “dark chamber” was an optical device used in drawing, and helped lead to the invention of photography
Cameraless  – (see photogram) An image produced without the use of optics or a camera
Carte de Visite  – The carte de visite (CdV or carte-de-visite) was a type of photograph made popular from the mid-1850’s in Europe and from 1860 and on in America
Chassis  – The chassis refers to the part of the camera in which the film lodges
Chloro-bromide Print  – Similar to Selver Gelatin prints, Chloro-bromides give deep rich blacks and crisp whites on a high gloss paper
Chromira  – (1) Chromira prints are continuous tone photographic prints exposed digitally through the use of a LED light source
Chromogenic  – Refers to the color photographic process in which a traditional silver image is first formed, then replaced with a colored dye image
Cibachrome  – Refers to both the trademarked photographic paper Cibachrome and the process of making prints with such paper
Cliché Verre  – Cliché Verre is French for “glass negative”, which is exactly what the term describes
CMYK  – CMYK is an industry standard term for cyan, magenta, yellow and black
Cold Mounting  – Refers to the method of attaching a photograph directly to a mount board using mounting tissue
Collage  – Collage, from the French word coller, meaning to stick, is a work of visual art made from an assemblage of different forms
Collodion  – Collodion is a solution of nitrocellulose in ether or acetone, sometimes with the addition of alcohols
Composition  – The art or practice of combining, placing or arranging the different elements of a work of art so as to produce a harmonious whole
Contact Print  – Refers to the photographic image usually produced from a negative
Cyanotype  – Cyanotype is an old monochrome photographic printing process which creates a cyan-blue print
Daguerreotype  – One of the earliest forms of the photograph, a daguerreotype refers to the process in which an image is exposed directly onto the mirror polished surface of silver
Darkroom  – A darkroom is a light controlled workspace in which photographers can use light sensitive materials to develop film and photographic paper
Definition  – Definition refers to the clearness and clarity of the general detail in a photograph
Diaphragm  – In optics, a diaphragm is a thin opaque structure with an opening (aperture) at its centre
Digital Imaging  – A digital image is an image that is created, manipulated and produced using computer technology, including software programs and printers
DIN  – DIN is an abbreviation of Deutsches Institut für Normung (the German Institute for Standardization), that designates to one of the systems of calibration of the sensitivity of film
Double Exposure  – In film and photography, double exposure is a technique in which a piece of film is exposed twice, to two different images
Dry Mounting  – Dry mounting is the technique of securing a photograph to a strong backing (often archival mat board) with the use of adhesive
Dry Plate Process  – After the Collodion process appeared, several other dry procedures including the dry plate process, were developed
Dye Transfer  – The dye transfer process is a color process used to make copies of high quality from transparencies
Edition  – The total number of impressions an artist makes of any one image or design
Emulsion  – An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible (unblendable) substances
Exposure  – In photography, exposure is the total amount of light allowed to fall on the photographic medium during the process of taking a photograph
F Number  – In photography and optics, the f-number or focal ratio of an optical system expresses the diameter of the entrance pupil in terms of the effective focal length of the lens
F.64, Group  – The F.64 Group was an American group of photographers organized in 1932 by Ansel Adams, Edward Weston, Willard Van Dyke, Imogen Cunningham, John Paul Edwards, Sonya Noskowiak and Henry Swift to promote "the true" photography
Ferrotype  – The ferrotype, also called the tintype or melainotype, is a photographic process developed in the United States in the 19th century
Fixer  – Photographic fixer is a chemical used in the final step in the photographic processing of film or paper
Fresson Process  – This photographic process was invented at the end of 19th century by the French photographer, Théodore-Henri Fresón
Fuji Crystal Archive  – A trademarked photographic paper
Giclée  – From the French term meaning “to spray”. Giclée is a process in which an image is rendered digitally by spraying a fine stream of ink onto archival art paper or canvas
Grainy  – Identifying an image in which areas of uniform tone on the subject appear spotty due to the clumping of silver particles (or other material) that make up the image
Gum Bichromate Process  – Gum bichromate is a photographic printing process that was introduced in 1894
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